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Electrical Discharge Machining

A reliable source for Electrical Discharge Machining information and leading Electrical Discharge Machining Companies

Hard materials are frequently machined using the non-conventional process known as electrical discharge machining (EDM). This technique is well-liked since EDM can work with all materials, regardless of how hard they are. Modern engineering materials used in harsh environments are frequently molded or created through the Electrical Discharge Method technique. However, this method has its shortcomings. Low material removal rates and substantial tool wear can frequently reduce the effectiveness of this kind of machining. Read More…

Electrical Discharge Machining Electrical discharge machining is a tooling method that uses electrical energy to cut, drill, etch and machine metal parts and is one of the most accurate types of machining. Hard metals and other materials are difficult to machine cleanly with conventional mechanical-cutting methods and therefore EDM machining is used.
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Leading Manufacturers

Waukesha, WI  |  800-798-9228

XACT Wire EDM Corp. is one of the largest and most experienced Wire EDM Companies in the country. Our Wire EDM manufacturing capabilities include a large number of high-end machines with two locations offering advanced CMM and video inspection. We work with a wide variety of customers in the medical, defense, aerospace, automation, robotics industries as well as many companies in the metal machining, tooling & stamping industries. We are ISO 9001:2015 certified. Contact us today to learn more!

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Xact Wire EDM Corporation $$$

Chatsworth, CA  |  818-998-5577

Wire Pro has been designing and manufacturing EDM’s for 42 years. We are dedicated to creating high-quality, innovative products for our customers. We offer a variety of EDM’s with customization options available to fit the needs of our customers. Our years of experience and advanced technology make us a leader in the industry. We strive to continue growing our business while improving our products and technology.

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Wire Pro EDM Technologies Inc. $$$

Rockford, IL  |  815-397-9707

Since 1973 EWT/3DCNC has dedicated their service and support to their customers with Engineering, Quality Machining, Building Molds & Dies, and handling EDM Consumable Supplies. Our experienced team of professionals have the knowledge of helping and supporting you with all of your needs.

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EWT/3DCNC Inc. $$$

Anaheim, CA  |  (714)826-2352

Since 1981, King Tek EDM and Precision Machining has grown into a full-service machine shop capable of producing parts in there entirety. Our primary focus is electrical discharge machinery as we offer wire EDM, sinker EDM, and small hole EDM. Utilizing the latest wire machining technology, we are involved in new applications of a variety of industries outside tool and die like aerospace.

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King-Tek EDM & Precision $$$
placeholder image Xact Wire EDM Corporation Wire Pro EDM Technologies Inc. EWT/3DCNC Inc. King-Tek EDM & Precision

EDM can be integrated with other traditional or unconventional manufacturing techniques to produce a more homogeneous and balanced machining setup. The inherent shortcomings of the EDM technique can be overcome by hybrid or mixed approaches to machining. When combined with traditional production processes, additional manufacturing techniques can considerably increase machining performance in EDM.

Electrical Discharge Machining

Working Principle of EDM

Spark creation and metal removal through spark erosion are the foundations of the electrical discharge machining working method. When an electric spark strikes a piece of metal and burns a hole, that is exactly what happens with EDM spark erosion. This process produces heat, which leads to the erosion and evaporation of metal. Therefore, the workpiece and the tool used in this machining process must be constructed of conductive materials.

EDM Process

Components of EDM

Power generator

This is how the EDM machining process is powered. The power generator is linked to the negative terminal, while the machined component is attached to the positive terminal (i.e. the workpiece). Electrical discharge machining uses a variety of power generators, some of which are listed below:

  • Resistance-capacitance type generator (RC type) generator of relaxation
  • Rotary type generator
  • Electrical pulse generator
  • EDM hybrid generator


The item to be machined is known as a workpiece. It is attached to the positive terminal of the power supply and fastened in the dielectric container using a fixture.


The workpiece is held securely in the dielectric container using the fixture.

Dielectric Medium

The operation of the EDM Machining process depends heavily on the dielectric medium. The dielectric fluid is typically a low-viscosity hydrocarbon oil. The electrode and the workpiece are kept apart by the dielectric. As the spark is created during the EDM machining procedure, the dielectric is ionized to create a column or path in the tool, which causes a surge of current. When the distance between the tool and work gap reaches about 0.03 mm and a voltage of about 7V, the dielectric medium is raptured. The spark discharge will occur in a very small area at a temperature and pressure of about 10,000 °C. Each spark experiences this in a matter of a microsecond. A very small portion of the workpiece vaporizes as the arc is driven out as the column of ionized dielectric vapor compresses. The minuscule metal particles are cooled to form small spheres, which are swept away by the dielectric fluid's flux.

Types of EDM methods

Wire EDM

Wire EDM is a common procedure that is also referred to as wire erosion or spark EDM. The workpiece is sliced with a brass wire or a thin copper wire. The electrode, in this instance, is a tiny wire. In this instance, deionized water typically serves as the dielectric fluid. The wire is continuously unfurled from an automatic feed using a spool during the procedure. This is due to the possibility that the wire and workpiece could compromise the electrical discharge. A new discharge path is therefore required in the cut. This strategy performs admirably. Engineers must take care that the wire must entirely passes through the workpiece. In essence, it, therefore, makes two-dimensional cuts in three-dimensional components.

Sinker EDM

This procedure creates a positive of the desired shape using electrodes made of pre-machined copper or graphite. Next, the electrode is pressed into the workpiece to make a negative of the original material shape. Several variables may influence the choice of electrode material in sinker EDM. These include the electrode's resistance to erosive wear and its conductivity, with copper material often more difficult to process than graphite. However, copper is better and more robust.

Hole EDM

In contrast to standard drilling methods, hole Electrical Distribution Machining may produce exceedingly tiny and deep holes. Furthermore, these holes don't require deburring. Regardless of the nature or hardness of the metal, this approach drills precise holes more quickly than conventional techniques.

Applications of EDM

  • Machining
  • Injection molding
  • Die casting
  • Small hole drilling
EDM Product

Advantages of EDM

  • Any hard material, even one that has been heat-treated, can be machined with EDM.
  • The tool can be used to create intricate shapes that can be duplicated.
  • A great degree of accuracy, roughly 0.005 mm, can be attained.
  • Up to 0.2 microns of good surface quality can be attained economically.
  • The length of the machining process is the same as that of traditional machining.
  • This method does not create mechanical tensions (the tool and work do not have contact).
  • Proper cooling and lubrication extend the tool’s life.
  • On the dies, it is simple to create hard surfaces that are also resistant to erosion.
  • Any electrically conductive material can use it.

Electrical Discharge Machining Informational Video


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